Friday, January 31, 2020
Leadership Styles Essay Example for Free
Leadership Styles Essay The leadership styles of the United States Presidents can make them effective or it can limit their effectiveness. The effectiveness of the President has direct effect on the American people. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy were two leaders that had major influences in the mid-20th century. Both men played a key role in the United States involvement in Vietnam. The experiences, styles of leading, and characteristics of both PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy intensified the level of involvement the United States had in the Vietnam experience. Even though the leadership styles may have differed, the two leaders refused to let communism spread (Moss, 2010). Presidents Eisenhower and KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style although different had similar qualities. President Eisenhower and Kennedy could be considered to have the leadership styles of both the Ã¢â¬Å"DirectorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"NavigatorÃ¢â¬ . Thomas Preston has explained a Director style is a leader with Ã¢â¬Å"both extensive policy experience and a high need for powerÃ¢â¬ (Preston, 2001). Directors have direct involvement in policy process by setting guidelines and advocating for their own personal views. The Navigator also has extensive expertise in policy but they also search for the opinions and viewpoints of other advisors. Navigators will gather the information and from the multiple different perspectives have a more deliberate decision making style. Without having a Navigator sense of style, the effectiveness of any leader can be limited because of a lack of information gathered and reviewed for decision. President Eisenhower proved his leadership style by the way he was involved in the political unrest in Vietnam. According to Preston, President Eisenhower Ã¢â¬Å"preferred formal, hierarchically organized advisory structure where information and advice could be centralized into a small inner circle of advisersÃ¢â¬ (Preston, 2001). However because of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s expertise in foreign policy he had a very active personal role in the policy process and delegated very little to other expert advisors. EisenhowerÃ¢â¬â¢s own preferences in policy lead to the policy decisions. President Eisenhower gave the command to intervene in southern Vietnam and replace the French (Moss, 2010). This was to maintain a non-Communist state thereby halting the potential spread of Communism. President Kennedy was interested in multiple perspectives on policy; he listened to different sources on conflicting views and planned for debates prior to decision making (Preston, 2001). Kennedy wanted political rest and peace in Vietnam but knew that without US involvement, the fighting and attacks on Vietnam would increase. Because of this, the United States became more heavily involved which meant more military forces and money being spent. Kennedy had made decisions to violate the provisions of the Geneva agreements of 1954, thereby increasing the U.S. military significantly in Vietnam. Ã¢â¬Å"Kennedy was not trying to win in Vietnam: he was doing only enough not to loseÃ¢â¬ (Moss, 2010). This sense of leadership by Kennedy was devised to protect the U.S. by only having a limited partnership with the Vietnam government. For President Kennedy, as a Director, he kept active involvemen t in policy process and needed assurance that his own thoughts and ideas would dominate the end result. However, as the Navigator, he trusted his advisory team and kept an open advisory system Ã¢â¬Å"characterized by a mixed formal-informal advice networkÃ¢â¬ (Preston, 2001). With the dual leadership style the President called for the heavy military involvement in Vietnam in 1965 (Moss, 2010). By having expertise in foreign affairs and taking the advice of his advisors, President Kennedy made the important decision to become more involved in the war efforts. For the United States, the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership is very important. The President is the countries representation. It is both very prestigious and powerful to be voted in as President of the United States. The President has the ability to keep the United States from war, or send us to war. The President is in charge of the military, deciding where troops should be stationed and how weapons should be used. That is great power, and without the backing of the American people the President and his cabinet wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be as powerful as they are. The American people need to know that the President has their best interest in mind. In conclusion, regardless of who the President is, the need for leadership is of great importance. By having both the Director and Navigator style leadership, the role of the President can be effective. The expertise, the desire to have a powerful role but also having the willingness to view other opinions for decision making is essential to making a great leader. The role the President has to be one that is inspiring to the American people but also the American people need to trust their leader, without trust there would be weakness.